Of course, talk to your doctor before starting any exercise regime to make sure you’re doing activities that are safe for your health and situation.  Also, make sure your doctor approves significant changes in your diet.  This article provides general information, and is not a substitute for medical advice.  Only a licensed medical professional can diagnose and treat medical conditions such as diabetes.

A large number of cross-sectional as well as prospective and retrospective studies have found significant association between physical inactivity and T2DM.12 A prospective study was carried out among more than thousand nondiabetic individuals from the high-risk population of Pima Indians. During an average follow-up period of 6-year, it was found that the diabetes incidence rate remained higher in less active men and women from all BMI groups.13 The existing evidence suggests a number of possible biological pathways for the protective effect of physical activity on the development of T2DM. First, it has been suggested that physical activity increases sensitivity to insulin. In a comprehensive report published by Health and Human Services, USA, 2015 reported that physical activity enormously improved abnormal glucose tolerance when caused by insulin resistance primarily than when it was caused by deficient amounts of circulating insulin.14 Second, physical activity is likely to be most beneficial in preventing the progression of T2DM during the initial stages, before insulin therapy is required. The protective mechanism of physical activity appears to have a synergistic effect with insulin. During a single prolonged session of physical activity, contracting skeletal muscle enhances glucose uptake into the cells. This effect increases blood flow in the muscle and enhances glucose transport into the muscle cell.15 Third, physical activity has also been found to reduce intra-abdominal fat, which is a known risk factor for insulin resistance. In certain other studies, physical activity has been inversely associated with intra-abdominal fat distribution and can reduce body fat stores.16 Lifestyle and environmental factors are reported to be the main causes of extreme increase in the incidence of T2DM.17
Protein provides slow steady energy with relatively little effect on blood sugar. Protein, especially plant-based protein, should always be part of a meal or snack. Protein not only keeps blood sugar stable, but it also helps with sugar cravings and feeling full after eating (satiety). Protein can come from both animal or plant sources; however, animal sources are also often sources of unhealthy saturated fats.
Combining the Nurses’ Health Study results with those from seven other studies found a similar link between sugary beverage consumption and type 2 diabetes: For every additional 12-ounce serving of sugary beverage that people drank each day, their risk of type 2 diabetes rose 25 percent. (27) Studies also suggest that fruit drinks— Kool Aid, fortified fruit drinks, or juices—are not the healthy choice that food advertisements often portray them to be: Women in the Black Women’s Health study who drank two or more servings of fruit drinks a day had a 31 percent higher risk of type 2 diabetes, compared to women who drank less than one serving a month. (28)
There is an association between the lengthening of the menstrual cycle and the risk for developing diabetes, particularly in obese women. In a national study of nurses, those who had a cycle length of greater than 40 days were twice as likely to develop diabetes then those who cycled every 26 to 31 days. The association is thought to be related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which also is known to be associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance may be a precursor for type 2 diabetes.

National Center for Health Statistics reported that socioeconomic status plays an important role in the development of T2DM; where it was known as a disease of the rich.49 On the contrary, the same reference reported that T2DM was more prevalent in lower income level and in those with less education. The differences may be due to the type of food consumed. Nutritionists advised that nutrition is very important in managing diabetes, not only type but also quantity of food which influences blood sugar. Meals should be consumed at regular times with low fat and high fiber contents including a limited amount of carbohydrates. It was observed that daily consumption of protein, fat and energy intake by Saudi residents were higher than what is recommended by the International Nutritional Organization.50


One serving in a category is called a "choice." A food choice has about the same amount of carbohydrates, protein, fat and calories — and the same effect on your blood glucose — as a serving of every other food in that same category. So, for example, you could choose to eat half of a large ear of corn or 1/3 cup of cooked pasta for one starch choice.

are allergic to dapagliflozin or any of the ingredients in FARXIGA. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include skin rash, raised red patches on your skin (hives), swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking FARXIGA and contact your healthcare provider or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away

Another essential element of Crawford's new lifestyle: her new food philosophy. "If you want something good for yourself, it's worth the time to invest in cooking," she says of her switch from eating out to staying in. "I let go of the processed foods and rely on foods as a whole. Everything we need is in our backyard." Crawford, now 30, tries to eat seasonally, makes fresh produce the center of her meals, and prefers organic food over conventional.
Heart-healthy fish. Eat heart-healthy fish at least twice a week. Fish can be a good alternative to high-fat meats. For example, cod, tuna and halibut have less total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol than do meat and poultry. Fish such as salmon, mackerel, tuna, sardines and bluefish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which promote heart health by lowering blood fats called triglycerides.

Type-2 diabetes is a major, non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at a global level. Type-2 diabetes results when the body does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin it produces. Type-2 diabetes is the leading cause of premature deaths. Improperly managed, it can lead to a number of health issues, including heart diseases, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and death. Type-2 diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is most common type of diabetes, usually begins when a person is in his or her mid-50s, but diabetes is not inevitable. Minor changes in your lifestyle can greatly reduce your chances of getting this disease. Therefore, in order to prevent this condition, action should be taken regarding the modifiable factors that influence its development-lifestyle and dietary habits. However, with proper testing, treatment and lifestyle changes, healthy eating as a strategy, promote walking, exercise, and other physical activities have beneficial effects on human health and prevention or treatment of diabetes, promoting adherence to this pattern is of considerable public health importance.
Only looking back could Jitahadi see how self-destructive her old eating habits were. At the time, she had a three-hour daily commute and had just lost one of her daughters. Healthy eating wasn't a top priority. "I realize how much I wasn't taking care of myself, and if I wanted to be here for my other daughter, I needed to turn this around," she says.
Those with diabetes should be results oriented. Find the scientist in yourself and track your numbers and push them to your goal ranges: pounds, blood glucose levels, A1c, minutes of moderate exercise every week, etc. Choose what is important to you, and identify concrete strategies to improve your numbers. A dietitian, especially one who is a diabetes educator can assist you to start slow, set goals, and identify sequential steps to reach each goal gradually. They can act as a coach to help you celebrate successes. and move on to another goal or challenge. Along with the other members of your health care them, let them be your cheerleader!

Research has found, too, that the Pritikin Program can actually reverse the Metabolic Syndrome. In 50% of adult Americans studied, the Pritikin Program reversed the clinical diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome, and in just three weeks. In research following children with the Metabolic Syndrome, 100% no longer had the syndrome within two weeks of starting the Pritikin Program.
Stay Hydrated. Drinking water throughout the day is always good to keep your organs and skin healthy. Of course, getting some fluid before, during and after exercise is just as important to avoid becoming dehydrated. However, what you choose matters a lot. For example, skip the soda. New findings come out regularly to warn against the negative health effects of added sugar, including fructose (ie, high fructose corn syrup), honey, and agave.
In addition to the millions of adults with diabetes, another 57 million adults have “pre-diabetes.” (7) This early warning sign is characterized by high blood sugar levels on a glucose tolerance test or a fasting glucose test. Whether pre-diabetes expands into full-blown type 2 diabetes is largely up to the individual. Making changes in weight, exercise, and diet can not only prevent pre-diabetes from becoming diabetes, but can also return blood glucose levels to the normal range.

The review of various studies suggests that T2DM patients require reinforcement of DM education including dietary management through stakeholders (health-care providers, health facilities, etc.) to encourage them to understand the disease management better, for more appropriate self-care and better quality of life. The overall purpose of treating T2DM is to help the patients from developing early end-organ complications which can be achieved through proper dietary management. The success of dietary management requires that the health professionals should have an orientation about the cultural beliefs, thoughts, family, and communal networks of the patients. As diabetes is a disease which continues for the lifetime, proper therapy methods with special emphasis on diet should be given by the healthcare providers in a way to control the disease, reduce the symptoms, and prevent the appearance of the complications. The patients should also have good knowledge about the disease and diet, for this purpose, the health-care providers must inform the patients to make changes in their nutritional habits and food preparations. Active and effective dietary education may prevent the onset of diabetes and its complications.
Whole grains, such as brown rice, quinoa, and oatmeal are good sources of fiber and nutrients; and have a low glycemic load making them good food choices. Processed food labels make it very confusing to understand whole grains. For example, "whole wheat bread" is made in many different ways, and some are not that different from white bread in its blood sugar impact (glycemic load). The same is true for whole grain pasta, it's still pasta. Whole grains have less of an impact on blood sugar because of the lower glycemic load. Choose whole grains that are still in their grain form like brown rice and quinoa, or look at the fiber content on the nutrition label. For example, a "good" whole grain bread will have 3+ grams of fiber per slice.

My specific tip for controlling diabetes with diet is to maintain a healthy lifestyle which includes fresh, mostly unprocessed foods from all food groups. Maintain a reasonable weight which may mean weight loss and stay active. The key here is: MAINTAIN any change you have accomplished. In my opinion and that of at least one of my clients you accomplish maintenance by being good to yourself and liking your lifestyle. Here is a quote from a client who has done well and I asked her for ‘tips’ to share. We can all find inspiration in her reply: “The biggest thing to change is your attitude. Be kind to yourself.
Exercise can also help people with type 2 diabetes avoid long-term complications, especially heart problems. People with diabetes are susceptible to developing blocked arteries (arteriosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack. Exercise helps keep your heart healthy and strong. Plus, exercise helps you maintain good cholesterol—and that helps you avoid arteriosclerosis.
Your doctor will be able to check your heart health, which is particularly important if you already have blocked arteries or high blood pressure. You also need to take into consideration any other diabetes-related complications—retinopathy or neuropathy, for example. As you begin an exercise program, your doctor can refer you to an exercise physiologist or diabetes educator to help you figure out the best exercise program that allows you to get in shape for your fitness level.

Carry a Rescue Snack: Going too long without eating can lead to dips in blood sugar, sometimes called “lows”, which create unpleasant symptoms, including ravenous hunger. This often leads to poor food choices, since we’re more focused on eating anything in sight, even if it’s not healthy. Rather than getting to this point, keep a healthy snack with you throughout the day in case you get stuck somewhere you didn’t plan at a mealtime. A balanced snack will combine a nutritious carb or veggie + source of protein or healthy fat.The chart below provides portable options you can mix and match to your tastes:


Diabetes mellitus or type-2 diabetes, is one of the major non-communicable and fastest growing public health problems in the world, is a condition difficult to treat and expensive to manage. It has been estimated that the number of diabetes sufferers in the world will double from the current value of about 190 million to 325 million during the next 25 years.[1,2,3] Individuals with type-2 diabetes are at a high risk of developing a range of debilitating complications such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, changes to the retina and blindness that can lead to disability and premature death. It also imposes important medical and economic burdens. Genetic susceptibility and environmental influences seem to be the most important factors responsible for the development of this condition. However, a drastic increase of physical inactivity, obesity, and type-2 diabetes has been recently observed. The fact indicates that obesity and physical inactivity may constitute the main reasons for the increasing burden of diabetes in the developed world.[4,5,6,7,8,9,10]
Eat every two to three hours. Spreading your energy needs throughout the day allows for healthier choices to be made and your blood sugar to stabilize. Work towards achieving a healthy meal pattern of breakfast (the first meal), followed by a small snack, then lunch (mid-day meal), another snack, dinner (last-meal of the day) and sometimes a small end of the day snack.
A ketogenic diet for prediabetes might include about 20 to 50 grams per day of non-fiber carbohydrates, or about 5 to 10% of total calories from carbohydrates. The rest of your calories come from fat and protein. The food choices on this diet are similar to those on other low-carb diets, but you may need to further restrict some of the moderate-carbohydrate options that might be easier to fit in on a more moderate low-carb diet. Examples include fruit (an apple has 24 grams of non-fiber carbohydrates) and starchy vegetables (a half-cup of corn has 15 grams of non-fiber carbs).

When his doctor and dietitian urged him to make changes to improve his diabetes control, Phelps, then 57, took the challenge seriously. He weighed everything he ate to gauge portion size. And he went slow, knowing that abrupt changes to his diet had never worked in the past. Instead of giving up desserts, he focused on smaller quantities and better-quality foods.


Designed to support positive behaviour change, the program helps eligible participants plan and action small lifestyle changes that have long term health benefits. The program involves six sessions overs six months and is delivered by qualified health professionals. Participants have the choice of group sessions or phone coaching options. Group sessions in local areas work well for people who enjoy social interaction and learning from others’ experiences while phone coaching appeals to those whose work or life situation make it difficult for them to commit to set days and times.

The difference between glycemic index and glycemic load is that glycemic index is a standardized measurement and glycemic load accounts for a real-life portion size. For example, the glycemic index of a bowl of peas is 68 (per 100 grams) but its glycemic load is just 16 (lower the better). If you just referred to the glycemic index, you'd think peas were a bad choice, but in reality, you wouldn't eat 100 grams of peas. With a normal portion size, peas have a healthy glycemic load as well as being an excellent source of protein.
Some easy-to-follow examples I often provide are adding chopped mixed vegetables to scrambled eggs and including fresh fruit on the side; preparing a green smoothie with low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, chopped fresh kale, and frozen fruit; preparing vegetarian jambalaya with brown rice; or choosing a hearty salad with mixed greens, nuts, beans, and light salad dressing from a salad bar. Food can be medicine and it can also be enjoyable!

Ethnic background: For example, the actual prevalence of diabetes in the Caucasian population of the US is about 7.1% while in the African American population; it increases to about 12.6%. Approximately 8.4% of Asian Americans and 11.6% of Hispanic Americans are affected. In a well-studied group of Native Americans, the Pima Indians, the prevalence increases to almost 35%.
The evidence is growing stronger that eating red meat (beef, pork, lamb) and processed red meat (bacon, hot dogs, deli meats) increases the risk of diabetes, even among people who consume only small amounts. The latest support comes from a “meta analysis,” or statistical summary, that combined findings from the long-running Nurses’ Health Study I and II and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study with those of six other long-term studies. The researchers looked at data from roughly 440,000 people, about 28,000 of whom developed diabetes during the course of the study. (43) They found that eating just one daily 3-ounce serving of red meat—say, a steak that’s about the size of a deck of cards—increased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 20 percent. Eating even smaller amounts of processed red meat each day—just two slices of bacon, one hot dog, or the like—increased diabetes risk by 51 percent.
When picked well and eaten in moderation, dairy can be a great choice for people with diabetes. Just keep fat content in mind, as being overweight or obese can reduce insulin sensitivity, causing prediabetes to progress to full-blown diabetes or increasing the risk of complications if you have type 2 diabetes. Whenever possible, opt for fat-free dairy options to keep calories down and unhealthy saturated fats at bay.
You don't have to live your life at the gym to reap the benefits of exercise. A brisk half-hour walk five days per week can be enough to help improve insulin sensitivity (the opposite of insulin resistance) and prevent diabetes. Also, just being generally more active can help a lot. To motivate yourself, get a pedometer to count your steps, and gradually increase the number of steps you are taking.
Snoring, like all other sounds, is caused by vibrations that cause particles in the air to form sound waves. While we are asleep, turbulent air flow can cause the tissues of the nose and throat to vibrate and give rise to snoring. Any person can snore. Snoring is believed to occur in anywhere from 30% of women to over 45% of men. People who snore can have any body type. In general, as people get older and as they gain weight, snoring will worsen. Snoring can be caused by a number of things, including the sleep position, alcohol, medication, anatomical structure of the mouth and throat, stage of sleep, and mouth breathing.
The medications only hide the blood sugar by cramming it into the engorged body. The diabetes looks better, since you can only see the blood sugars. Doctors can congratulate themselves on a illusion of a job well done, even as the patient gets continually sicker. Patients require ever increasing doses of medications and yet still suffer with heart attacks, congestive heart failure, strokes, kidney failure, amputations and blindness. “Oh well” the doctor tells himself, “It’s a chronic, progressive disease”.

Globally, T2DM is at present one of the most common diseases and its levels are progressively on the rise. It has been evaluated that around 366 million people worldwide or 8.3% in the age group of 20-79 years had T2DM in 2011. This figure is expected to rise to 552 million (9.9%) by 2030.10 This disease is associated with severe complications which affect patient’s health, productivity, and quality of life. More than 50% of people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (primarily heart disease and stroke) and is a sole cause of end stage renal disease which requires either dialysis or kidney transplantation. It is also a major cause of blindness due to retinal damage in adult age group referred to as diabetic retinopathy (DR). People with T2DM have an increased risk of lower limb amputation that may be 25 times greater than those without the disease. This disease caused around 4.6 million deaths in the age-group of 20-79 years in 2011.11


Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, although the incidence of this type of diabetes in adolescents is growing. Diabetes is more common among Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Also, people who develop diabetes while pregnant (a condition called gestational diabetes) are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.
Often, people with type 2 diabetes start using insulin with one long-acting shot at night, such as insulin glargine (Lantus) or insulin detemir (Levemir). Discuss the pros and cons of different drugs with your doctor. Together you can decide which medication is best for you after considering many factors, including costs and other aspects of your health.
×