DM is the fourth among the leading causes of global deaths due to complications. Annually, more than three million people die because of diabetes or its complications. Worldwide, this disease weighs down on health systems and also on patients and their families who have to face too much financial, social and emotional strains. Diabetic patients have an increased risk of developing complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. However, complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy can have a distressing impact on patient’s quality of life and a significant increase in financial burden. The prevalence reported from studies conducted worldwide on the complications of T2DM showed varying rates. The prevalence of cataracts was 26-62%, retinopathy 17-50%, blindness 3%, nephropathy 17-28%, cardiovascular complications 10-22.5%, stroke 6-12%, neuropathy 19-42%, and foot problems 5-23%. Mortality from all causes was reported between 14% and 40%.71 In a study, researchers found that 15.8% incidence of DR is in the developing countries. The prevalence of DR reported from Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, and Brazil was 30%, 31.3%, and 35.4%, respectively; while in Kashmir it was 27% and in South Africa it was 40%. The prevalence of DR 26.1% was observed among 3000 diabetic patients from Pakistan; it was significantly higher than that what was reported in India (18%) and in Malaysia (14.9%).72-76 Studies conducted on diabetes complications in Saudi Arabia are very few and restricted. A 1992 study from Saudi Arabia showed that in T2DM patients; occurrence rate of cataract was 42.7%, neuropathy in 35.9% patients, retinopathy in 31.5% patients, hypertension in 25% patients, nephropathy in 17.8% patients, ischemic heart disease in 41.3% patients, stroke in 9.4% patients, and foot infections in 10.4% of the patients. However, this study reported complications for both types of diabetes.77
“High glycemic index foods are going to be primarily processed foods,” says Lori Chong, RD, CDE, at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus. Those processed foods tend to have more white sugar and flour in them, which are higher on the GI, she says. Foods lower on the GI include vegetables, especially non-starchy vegetables, like broccoli, cauliflower, and leafy greens and whole-grain products, such as brown rice (as opposed to white rice), Chong says. She notes that even many fruits are low on the GI, with pineapple and dried fruit being some of the highest (Berries, apples, and pears tend to be fairly low.)
Whole grains, such as brown rice, quinoa, and oatmeal are good sources of fiber and nutrients; and have a low glycemic load making them good food choices. Processed food labels make it very confusing to understand whole grains. For example, "whole wheat bread" is made in many different ways, and some are not that different from white bread in its blood sugar impact (glycemic load). The same is true for whole grain pasta, it's still pasta. Whole grains have less of an impact on blood sugar because of the lower glycemic load. Choose whole grains that are still in their grain form like brown rice and quinoa, or look at the fiber content on the nutrition label. For example, a "good" whole grain bread will have 3+ grams of fiber per slice.
The problem, of course, has not been solved – the sugar bowl is still overflowing. You’ve only moved sugar from the blood (where you could see it) into the body (where you couldn’t see it). So, the very next time you eat, the exact same thing happens. Sugar comes in, spills out into the blood and you take metformin to cram the sugar back into the body. This works for a while, but eventually, the body fills up with sugar, too. Now, that same dose of metformin cannot force any more sugar into the body.
The attempts to adhere to the conventional food measurements in order to comply with prescriptions of the so-called ‘diabetic diet’ usually result in unnecessary restrictions, overindulgence, or monotonous consumption of certain food items, e.g., unripe plantain/beans. This is a consequence of illiteracy, poverty, and cultural misconceptions about the role of diet in the management of diabetes. This is usually the most problematic aspect of diabetes care. The usually recommended daily energy intake for the non-obese diabetic patient is between 1500 and 2500 calories per day, the average allowance being 2000 k calories per day. The recommendation for the overweight diabetic patient is between 800 and 1500 k calories per day, while the underweight (including growing children and adolescents) should be allowed at least 2500 k calories/day.[16,17]
The superfood vinegar is best consumed as vinaigrette dressing on your salad, but it has beneficial effects no matter how you enjoy it. Vinegar slows gastric emptying, which has several beneficial effects for people with type 2 diabetes. This slows the glucose release into the bloodstream, allowing for a small, steady insulin response instead of a large insulin surge. Vinegar also increases satiety, so if you enjoy salad with vinaigrette as your first course, you are less likely to overeat during the main course.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Medical Association (AMA) are sounding an alarm about prediabetes because a national effort—by everyone from physicians to employers to patients to community organizations—is required to prevent type 2 diabetes in the United States. In addition to focusing on the person with prediabetes or diabetes, we also must engage the systems and communities where people live, work and play. We can all Act – Today.
How do sugary drinks lead to this increased risk? Weight gain may explain the link: In both the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Black Women’s Health Study, women who increased their consumption of sugary drinks gained more weight than women who cut back on sugary drinks. (26, 28) Several studies show that children and adults who drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages are more likely to gain weight than those who don’t, (28, 30) and that switching from these to water or unsweetened beverages can reduce weight. (31) Even so, however, weight gain caused by sugary drinks may not completely explain the increased diabetes risk. There is mounting evidence that sugary drinks contribute to chronic inflammation, high triglycerides, decreased “good” (HDL) cholesterol, and increased insulin resistance, all of which are risk factors for diabetes. (32)
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Thiazolidinediones. Like metformin, these medications — including rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos) — make the body's tissues more sensitive to insulin. These drugs have been linked to weight gain and other more-serious side effects, such as an increased risk of heart failure and anemia. Because of these risks, these medications generally aren't first-choice treatments.
If you have found that your fasting blood glucose is rising over time, even if it is normal, and certainly if you "officially" have impaired glucose intolerance (pre-diabetes), strongly consider getting a home glucose meter and testing your own blood to see if you can determine which lifestyle changes help lower and stabilize your blood glucose. The only problem is that many insurance companies will not pay for this preventative step, and the test strips are admittedly expensive. Still, you might be able to afford to monitor yourself at least occasionally or find a diabetic friend who sometimes has extra strips. Tracking your blood glucose response to meals and over time can be a big help in preventing the progression of diabetes.
Eventually, even though the pancreas is working at its best to produce more and more insulin, the body tissues (for example, muscle and fat cells) do not respond and become insensitive to the insulin. At this point, overt diabetes occurs as the body is no longer able to effectively use its insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Over time, these high levels of sugar result in the complications we see all too often in patients with diabetes.
As for packaging, frozen veggies without sauce are just as nutritious as fresh, and even low-sodium canned veggies can be a good choice if you’re in a pinch. Just be sure to watch your sodium intake to avoid high blood pressure, and consider draining and rinsing salted canned veggies before eating, per the ADA. If possible, opt for low-sodium or sodium-free canned veggies if going that route.