National Center for Health Statistics reported that socioeconomic status plays an important role in the development of T2DM; where it was known as a disease of the rich.49 On the contrary, the same reference reported that T2DM was more prevalent in lower income level and in those with less education. The differences may be due to the type of food consumed. Nutritionists advised that nutrition is very important in managing diabetes, not only type but also quantity of food which influences blood sugar. Meals should be consumed at regular times with low fat and high fiber contents including a limited amount of carbohydrates. It was observed that daily consumption of protein, fat and energy intake by Saudi residents were higher than what is recommended by the International Nutritional Organization.50

Why do red meat and processed red meat appear to boost diabetes risk? It may be that the high iron content of red meat diminishes insulin’s effectiveness or damages the cells that produce insulin; the high levels of sodium and nitrites (preservatives) in processed red meats may also be to blame. Red and processed meats are a hallmark of the unhealthful “Western” dietary pattern, which seems to trigger diabetes in people who are already at genetic risk. (44)
Diabetic’s dietary practices are mainly influenced by cultural backgrounds. Concerning each of the dimensions of dietary practices, there were significant positive relationships between knowledge regarding diabetic diet and dietary practices. Knowledge was a salient factor related to dietary behaviors control.46 Moreover, patients’ knowledge on a recommended diet indicates their understanding of dietary guidelines which influenced their food selection and eating patterns.47 The association between dietary knowledge and dietary practices among T2DM patients in the previous studies were inconsistent. Another study revealed that there was no relationship between dietary knowledge and compliance of dietary practices.58 On the other hand, the same study found that a high dietary knowledge score was associated with following dietary recommendations and knowledgeable patients performed self-management activities in a better way. Dietary knowledge significantly influences dietary practices. In Indonesia, a study was conducted to measure dietary practices among diabetic patients, which elaborated that the Indonesian people, preferred to consume high-fat foods which lead to an increased risk of CVD.59 The trend of skipping breakfast has dramatically increased over the past 10 years in children, adolescents, and adults.60,61 There is increasing evidence that skipping breakfast is related with overweight and other health issues.62 In addition, frequent eating or snacking may also increase the body weight and risk of metabolic diseases.63,64 Rimm65 demarcated western and prudent dietary patterns. The prudent dietary pattern was characterized by increased consumption of fish, poultry, various vegetables and fruits whereas; the western dietary pattern was characterized by an increased consumption of processed and red meat, chips, dairy products, refined grains, and sweets and desserts. These patterns were previously associated with T2DM risk. The glycemic index is an indicator of the postprandial blood glucose response to food per gram of carbohydrate compared with a reference food such as white bread or glucose. Hence, the glycemic load represents both the quality and quantity of the carbohydrates consumed.66-69 Another study conducted in Lebanon demonstrated direct correlation of the refined grains and desserts and fast food patterns with T2DM, however, in the same study an inverse correlation was observed between the traditional food pattern and T2DM among Lebanese adults.70
National Center for Health Statistics reported that socioeconomic status plays an important role in the development of T2DM; where it was known as a disease of the rich.49 On the contrary, the same reference reported that T2DM was more prevalent in lower income level and in those with less education. The differences may be due to the type of food consumed. Nutritionists advised that nutrition is very important in managing diabetes, not only type but also quantity of food which influences blood sugar. Meals should be consumed at regular times with low fat and high fiber contents including a limited amount of carbohydrates. It was observed that daily consumption of protein, fat and energy intake by Saudi residents were higher than what is recommended by the International Nutritional Organization.50
Prediabetes means a person's blood glucose (sugar) level is higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as diabetes. If you have prediabetes, you are at increased risk for developing serious health problems such as type 2 diabetes, stroke and heart disease. The sooner people find out they have prediabetes and take action, the better their chances of preventing type 2 diabetes.
The Life! program is a Victorian lifestyle modification program that helps you reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Run by expert health professionals, the program is delivered as a Group Course or a Telephone Health Coaching service. Funded by the Victorian Government and managed by Diabetes Victoria it is the biggest prevention program of its type in Australia.
Gestational diabetes is a condition that is first recognized during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood sugar. Approximately 4% of all pregnancies are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Low blood sugar is prevented by hormones produced by the placenta during a woman's pregnancy. The actions of insulin are stopped by these hormones. Gestational diabetes is the result of the pancreas' inability to produce enough insulin to overcome the effect of the increase hormones during pregnancy.
Although sugar does not cause the blood sugar to rise any higher than other carbohydrates, it should be eaten along with other healthy foods. If you choose to drink a 12-ounce can of a sugar-sweetened soft drink, that would use up about 45 grams of carba, and you wouldn't have gotten any nutrition (protein, vitamins, or minerals). What a waste of calories!

Some easy-to-follow examples I often provide are adding chopped mixed vegetables to scrambled eggs and including fresh fruit on the side; preparing a green smoothie with low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, chopped fresh kale, and frozen fruit; preparing vegetarian jambalaya with brown rice; or choosing a hearty salad with mixed greens, nuts, beans, and light salad dressing from a salad bar. Food can be medicine and it can also be enjoyable! 

You may feel fine, but that is no guarantee that your blood sugar levels are in the target range. Remember, diabetic complications do not appear right away. And complications may develop even when the blood sugar is only slightly elevated. Regular blood sugar monitoring can help you keep your blood sugars in control and prevent serious damage to your eyes, kidneys and nerves. If your sugar levels are out of line, consult your doctor.
While some people attempt to manage their type 2 diabetes with diet and exercise alone, this may not work for everyone. In fact, though the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates 16 percent of people with diabetes don't take medication, the majority of people with diabetes require insulin or oral meds at some point, often at diagnosis.
Although most vegetable oils are in some ways healthier than animal fats, you will still want to keep them to a minimum. All fats and oils are highly concentrated in calories. A gram of any fat or oil contains 9 calories, compared with only 4 calories for a gram of carbohydrate. Avoid foods fried in oil, oily toppings, and olives, avocados, and peanut butter. Aim for no more than 2-3 grams of fat per serving of food, e.g., white or wheat bread, most cold cereals, watermelon, pineapple, baking potatoes, sugar.
Counting carbohydrates: Dietary fiber may be listed underneath the listing for total carbohydrates. Dietary fiber is not digested by the body and can be subtracted from the total amount of carbohydrates present in food. This gives the net carbohydrates and will give a more accurate count of how much of the carbohydrates that affect blood sugar are present.
Regular physical activity helps the body cells take up glucose and thus lower blood glucose levels. Regular physical activity also helps with weight loss as well as controlling blood cholesterol and blood pressure. You need to let your doctor and dietitian know about the kinds of physical activities you do regularly. Your doctor and dietitian will help you balance your physical activity with your medication and diabetic meal plan. If you are not physically active now, your doctor may recommend that you increase physical activity. Important benefits of a regular aerobic exercise program in diabetes management include decreased need for insulin, decreased risk of obesity, and decreased risk for heart disease. Exercise decreases total cholesterol, improves the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and reduces blood triglycerides. It may also decrease blood pressure and lower stress levels. Walking is one of the easiest and healthiest ways to exercise. This is one activity that anyone can do for a lifetime without special equipment and with little risk of injury. Talk to your doctor about exercise. Supervised activity is best because of the risk of an insulin imbalance. Use the buddy system when you exercise.[71,72,73,74,75,76,77]

Two large studies - one in Finland and the other one U.S. (the Diabetes Prevention Program- DPP) have shown the benefit of weight loss in diabetes prevention. In the Finnish study, more than 500 men and women with impaired glucose tolerance were assigned to a control group or an exercise/weight loss group. By the end of the study, the weight loss group had lost about 8 pounds, and the control group about 2 pounds. The weight loss group had significantly less participants develop diabetes than the control group.


The good news is that prevention plays an important role in warding off these complications. By maintaining tight control of your blood glucose—and getting it as close to normal as possible—you’ll help your body function in the way that it would if you did not have diabetes. Tight control helps you decrease the chances that your body will experience complications from elevated glucose levels.
Stream a variety of exercise routines to get you moving and motivated! GlucoseZone™ is a digital exercise program that provides you with personalized exercise guidance and support designed to help you achieve the diabetes and fitness results you want. American Diabetes Association members receive an exclusive discount on their GlucoseZone subscription when they sign up using their ADA member ID!
If you choose to drink alcohol, remember: To drink with your meal or snack (not on an empty stomach!), to drink slowly or dilute with water or diet soda, that liqueurs, sweet wines and dessert wines have a lot of sugar, to wear your Medic Alert (Alcohol can cause hypoglycemia/low blood glucose), reducing alcohol can promote weight loss and help you lower your blood pressure.
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