“For example, prior studies have suggested that variants in CYP1A2, (a gene) encoding the enzyme responsible for more than 95 percent of caffeine metabolism, may alter associations of coffee drinking with cardiovascular-related outcomes, with slower caffeine metabolizers having higher risk of developing hypertension (high blood pressure) or having a myocardial infarction (heart attack) relative to their non-drinking counterparts, whereas faster caffeine metabolizers who drink coffee are at no or lower risk of these outcomes.” 

You might think that since we boil water to brew coffee, you don’t have to worry whether it’s filtered. But Swinney says filtered water is a smart choice, if not for taste, but for health. “Filtered water ensures there are not any unwanted heavy metals like lead or copper, that might be found in old pipes. Tap water also contain many chlorine disinfection byproducts which can be harmful long term,” she says. “You should also avoid using well water unless it’s been tested for contaminants.”
So how much java is too much? It's wise to stick to no more than 3 to 4 cups per day. Certain groups, such as people with hypertension and the elderly, may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of caffeine. Pregnant and breast-feeding women will want to limit intake to a maximum of 200 to 300 milligrams a day of caffeine (the amount in 2 to 3 cups of coffee). The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that pregnant women cap caffeine consumption at 200 milligrams a day.
Research has shown that although caffeine is a diuretic (meaning it triggers fluid loss), your body can adjust to a consistent intake of caffeine, which negates the dehydrating effect. However, many people who start the day with coffee find that they don’t drink enough plain water by the end of the day. If you’re one of them, try downing at least one cup or eight ounces of H2O (plain or infused) when you wake up. And aim for a target of four 16-ounce servings of water throughout the day to stay well-hydrated.
Other studies have tried to tease apart which ingredients in coffee contribute to its health benefits. Those might include its antioxidants, which can combat cancer, and anti-inflammatory compounds, which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart conditions and even neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s, as well as the risk of liver diseases like cirrhosis and cancer.
We know, we can’t believe it is butter in there, either. Buttered (a.k.a. “Bulletproof”) coffee has been making celebs, athletes, and health bloggers alike get friendlier with fats. Why? Some claim this buttery buzz gives them more energy, improves brain function, and aids in weight loss—particularly if these folks are following a ketogenic diet already.
Yep, we went there. Drinking coffee typically makes you have to go to the bathroom because of its laxative effect. But how? In some studies, researchers have found coffee might stimulate the distal colon, which pushes waste out of your body quicker, and a 1990 study in the journal Gut found it only takes four minutes for coffee to start having an effect on your bathroom schedule.
Caffeine affects every person differently, so if you experience any negative side effects, consider cutting your coffee consumption accordingly. It takes about six hours for the effects of caffeine to wear off, so limit coffee drinking to early in the day, or switch to decaf, which only contains about 2 to 12 mg of caffeine per eight ounces. Always taper your coffee consumption gradually. Avoid quitting coffee cold turkey; doing so can lead to caffeine withdrawal symptoms that may include severe headache, muscle aches and fatigue which can last for days.
Drinking coffee on an empty stomach is an unhealthy habit that can lead to various health risks, like a damaged stomach lining and increased anxiety. Luckily, you can prevent these potential risks by making sure to eat breakfast before enjoying your morning cuppa. That being said, it's important not to drink coffee excessively throughout the day, and avoid drinking it past 3 p.m. so that you don't interrupt your sleeping schedule.
“For example, prior studies have suggested that variants in CYP1A2, (a gene) encoding the enzyme responsible for more than 95 percent of caffeine metabolism, may alter associations of coffee drinking with cardiovascular-related outcomes, with slower caffeine metabolizers having higher risk of developing hypertension (high blood pressure) or having a myocardial infarction (heart attack) relative to their non-drinking counterparts, whereas faster caffeine metabolizers who drink coffee are at no or lower risk of these outcomes.”
Looking for a replacement for your diet soda? Try sparkling coffee. The latest interpretation of coffee involves blending cold brew with natural ingredients like Meyer lemon juice and organic cane sugar. The health benefits of flavors like Ginger Hibiscus? They’re marketed as healthier energy drinks, with formulations that contain electrolytes, antioxidants, and less caffeine than straight-up coffee. Companies like Matchless, Upruit, Keepers, and Stumptown make canned versions.
Coffee is one of the most chemically treated foods in the world (global demand is high, so methods of growing it often are chemical fertilizer-pesticide-herbicide intensive). This is bad for you (since pesticide residues can end up in your cup) and really bad for the planet. High demand and the fact that it’s generally grown in poorer countries also means labor practices are a major issue. Buy organic and fair-trade if and when you can.
Over the past decade, studies have found a link between coffee consumption and a lower risk of dementia. It’s thought that the drink’s high caffeine content might be responsible for the brain-boosting benefits. One small study of subjects who showed signs of memory problems found that, over a 2- to 4-year period, people with lower blood levels of caffeine were more likely to develop dementia than those with higher levels. (Want to brew up a tastier cup of joe? Consider trying some of these six ways to flavor your coffee without added sugar.)
In the Hungry For Change Book we discuss the addictive nature of caffeine and when consumed in large quantities, can lead to adrenal fatigue. Coffee is also a diuretic, meaning it purges water from your body. That said, if you want to function at a high level and remain well hydrated, then it would be a better choice to replace coffee with a natural alternative. The list below provides some great tasting substitutes.
It’s no secret that antioxidants are good for you. Antioxidants (32) help to limit a chemical called free radicals, which have been associated with cell degeneration as well as a number of deadly diseases. By increasing the amount of antioxidants in your diet you can limit free radicals in the body, and limit your risk to some of these diseases.
While many of us start the day with a big cup of coffee, you actually may be lowering your energy levels by doing this. How is this possible? Well, quite simply, your body releases insulin in response to the caffeine found within coffee. This, in turn, causes a major drop in blood sugar, which leaves you feeling depleted and tired. Not a great way to start your day. Munch on a small snack during your morning cup, or even eat right before you drink. Your body will thank you for it.
A growing body of research suggests an association between coffee drinking and a reduced risk of diabetes. A 2009 study found that the risk of developing diabetes dropped by 7 percent for each daily cup of coffee. Previous epidemiological studies reported that heavy coffee drinkers (those who regularly drink four or more cups daily) had a 50 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than light drinkers or nondrinkers.
One of the best tricks for slashing your sugar intake is to reach for “sweet” spices, like cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves. In addition to boosting flavor and aroma, spices seriously up your antioxidant intake. (Cinnamon has the added perk of helping with blood sugar and insulin regulation.) You could also try a spice combo, like pumpkin or apple pie spice, or sprinkle in raw (non-Dutched) cocoa powder, another antioxidant-rich add-in.
You can improve your coffee by adding real cream. This means organic and grass-fed. Cream like this can be purchased at all major health food stores, and will give you the health benefits of CLA (conjugated linoleic acid). There is also usually a nice amount of vitamin K2 present in full-fat cream. This is important because adequate intake of vitamin K2 has been linked with lower rates of cancer and heart disease. Full-fat cream has even been linked to more successful weight loss.
Need a little boost to get you through your HIIT workout? A 2013 study from PLoS One shows that athletes who consumed coffee an hour before exercise had greater performance than those who drank decaffeinated coffee. Plus, a 2015 study from the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism suggests that people who drink coffee before a workout burn more calories after exercise, also known as EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption). This means that even if your spin class is over, your body will continue to burn more calories. We’ll drink to that! ☕
One of the more surprising benefits of coffee has to do with the heart. Although coffee temporarily causes an increase in one's blood pressure, drinking two cups daily can help prevent certain cardiovascular problems, such as heart failure. Caffeine may also help prevent disturbances or irregularities in one's heart rhythm. Additionally, there is also a reduced risk of stroke.
One of the benefits of coffee beans is that they contain an antioxidant called chlorogenic acid (CGA) in addition to other antioxidants. Raw beans contain roughly 9 percent CGA by weight, which can help with weight loss and is a neuroprotectant. Coffee beans also help reduce inflammation, which is associated with a number of health concerns. In addition, the caffeine in coffee beans provides benefits such as reducing headaches. Understanding these health benefits can help coffee-drinkers appreciate more than just the taste of their next cup of java.
Coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages for a reason: It not only tastes good and gives you a serious jolt of energy, but it also has plenty of amazing, body-boosting benefits. Which, in all honestly, is a major bonus considering the fact that most people are simply pleased to have something to help them get through their morning meetings.
One of the more surprising benefits of coffee has to do with the heart. Although coffee temporarily causes an increase in one's blood pressure, drinking two cups daily can help prevent certain cardiovascular problems, such as heart failure. Caffeine may also help prevent disturbances or irregularities in one's heart rhythm. Additionally, there is also a reduced risk of stroke.
So how much coffee is healthy, and how much is too much? Two to three eight-ounce cups per day is considered moderate; heavy coffee drinkers consume four cups or more daily. Remember, the amount of caffeine per coffee beverage varies depending upon the preparation and style of beverage. Eight ounces of brewed coffee may contain as little as 80 to as much as 200 mg of caffeine per cup (an “average” cup probably contains about 100 mg).
We’re not talking about the inflammation caused by a killer workout, we mean the type of disease-causing inflammation that’s spurred and worsened by old age. Caffeine has an amazing influence on your immune system—so much in fact that nearly all the other health benefits below could be explained by its ability to fight and ward off disease (like type 2 diabetes and heart disease), according to research published in Nature Medicine. In short, caffeine blocks certain receptors on brain cells, which is how coffee has its stimulating “wake-up” effect. In impeding these receptors, caffeine also blocks pathways that product inflammatory molecules, the researchers found. So, as you age, don’t be wary of coffee. In this study, the older men and women who drank more caffeine had fewer inflammatory molecules; they also had lower blood pressure and more flexible arteries, more relatives who lived past age 90, and were healthier overall.
Long term consumption of coffee has also been shown to reduce, although moderately, the risk of stroke (38). Another study pointed out that drinking about five or six cups of coffee a day is associated with the greatest reduction (39) (36%) in stroke risk, and that coffee also contributes to overall reduction of cardiovascular mortality (a less scary way of saying “heart death”).
In a research, a few individuals received a dose of 150 milligrams of caffeine each, about as much consisted of a cup of coffee. The researchers noticed a significant surge in their brain activity. The researchers, also, noted that the reaction times, as well as memory skills of the caffeinated individual improved dramatically compared to the control group that received an ordinary placebo. To be specific, they didn’t indicate any increase whatsoever as far as brain activity is concerned.
Studies on coffee consumption patterns of both genders indicate that regular coffee drinking lowers the danger of developing gout. Another separate study analysed the health behaviours of almost 90,000 female nurses across 26 years. Far from what most of them expected, a positive correlation between decreased threat for gout and long-term coffee consumption was noted.
"Association of Coffee and Caffeine Intake With the Risk of Parkinson Disease " G. Webster Ross, MD; Robert D. Abbott, PhD; Helen Petrovitch, MD; David M. Morens, MD; Andrew Grandinetti, PhD; Ko-Hui Tung, MS; Caroline M. Tanner, MD, PhD; Kamal H. Masaki, MD; Patricia L. Blanchette, MD, MPH; J. David Curb, MD, MPH; Jordan S. Popper, MD; Lon R. White, MD, MPH. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.283.20.2674. 2000;283(20):2674-2679. Accessed 15 December 2013.
Sure, coffee isn’t going to do as much good as sunscreen when it comes to protecting your skin, but it still has some benefits. A 2014 study published by the American Association for Cancer Research found drinking coffee can help reduce the risk of melanoma, which according to the American Cancer Society causes a large majority of skin cancer-related deaths.
Here’s a way to add a little seasonal flair to your caffeine routine while also supporting heart health and balancing blood sugar levels. (PSL, can you do that?) Adding a pinch of cinnamon can boost antioxidants, lower your blood sugar, and even cut your risk of heart disease. Plus, it tastes so good that you might finally kick the cream and sugar habit because, really, it doesn't need anything else.
Unfortunately, there’s no cure for Alzheimer’s, the disorder that slowly causes memory loss and mental decline. But coffee could help reduce the risk of developing it in the first place. A 2016 meta-analysis published in the journal Nutrition found drinking high levels of coffee was associated with a reduced risk of a 27 percent reduced risk of the disease.
Want to add even more antioxidants to your coffee and control your blood sugar? I thought so. How exactly does one do that? It’s simple: just add a pinch of cinnamon to your cup! Interestingly, cinnamon has a fairly long history of use as both a spice and a medicine. While it can be used at any time of year, it no doubt tastes best during the cold, winter months.

For a long time, research showed drinking coffee was associated with a higher risk of conditions like heart disease. Later, scientists identified a problem with many of the studies: they didn’t control for other behaviors. Coffee drinkers, it turns out, are also more likely to smoke, drink, and be inactive, all behaviors that raise the risk of many chronic diseases.
Independent studies on the coffee consumption patterns of men and women suggest that drinking coffee regularly reduces the risk of developing gout. Researchers in the Nurses’ Health Study analyzed the health habits of nearly 90,000 female nurses over a period of 26 years and found a positive correlation between long-term coffee consumption and a decreased risk for gout. The benefit was associated with both regular and decaf consumption: women who drank more than four cups of regular coffee daily had a 57 percent decreased risk of gout; gout risk decreased 22 percent in women who drank between one and three cups daily; and one cup of decaf per day was associated with a 23 percent reduced risk of gout when compared to the women who didn’t drink coffee at all. Similar findings have been documented for men: another large-scale study, published in the journal Arthritis & Rheumatism, found that men who drank four to five cups of coffee per day decreased their risk of gout by 40 percent, and that those who consumed six cups or more lowered gout risk by 60 percent. 

There’s no need to try anything crazy; the only performance enhancer you really need is coffee. Research has shown its ability to give workouts a boost and increase athletic performance, and that’s exactly why you’ll find so many Olympians drinking it: One report from the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism found the majority of the 20,686 Olympic athletes analyzed had caffeine in their urine.
In addition to providing a temporary boost in brain activity and memory, regular coffee consumption may help prevent cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. In one promising Finnish study, researchers found that drinking three to five cups of coffee daily at midlife was associated with a 65 percent decreased risk of Alzheimer’s and dementia in later life. Interestingly, the study authors also measured the effect of tea drinking on cognitive decline, but found no association.
The healthiest way to take your coffee is, of course, black. But if you can’t stand the taste of the bitter grounds on their own, we have a few pieces of good news for you. Firstly, some studies show that probably means you’re not a psychopath — congratulations. But secondly, there are other healthy options out there to add flavor to your beverage — without adding heaps of sugar.
Coffee doesn’t only help reduce the risk of developing melanoma—it does the same for basal cell carcinoma too, which affects millions of people every year. A 2012 study of 113,000 participants published by the American Association for Cancer Research found those who drank a minimum of three cups of coffee a day had a 20 percent lower risk of developing the skin cancer than those who didn’t.
Here’s why: Adding a teaspoon of unsweetened cocoa (we’re talking the fermented seeds from the cacao tree) offers anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities that can help your body by lowering blood pressure, balancing cholesterol, and helping to manage type 2 diabetes. Think a homemade mocha with zero added sugar, although we think a little drizzle of maple syrup would be good in this too.
Although it was once believed that coffee was potentially a carcinogen, more recent studies have found that it may help lower the risk for a variety of cancers, not just skin cancer. The risk of both liver and prostate cancer may be reduced. For example, according to researchers, coffee drinkers were 40 to 50 percent less likely to develop liver cancer than individuals who did not. Other cancers that may be less likely when you drink coffee include oral, uterine, colon, and rectal cancer.
Consider a complete elimination program and avoid all refined sugars, flours, caffeine, alcohol, dairy, gluten and any other addictive substance. By allowing certain triggers to stay in the diet the body stays on the vicious cycle of cravings and addictive behavior. Reset your biology by eliminating all these dietary triggers for inflammation and fatigue.
Consider a complete elimination program and avoid all refined sugars, flours, caffeine, alcohol, dairy, gluten and any other addictive substance. By allowing certain triggers to stay in the diet the body stays on the vicious cycle of cravings and addictive behavior. Reset your biology by eliminating all these dietary triggers for inflammation and fatigue.

How it works: Scientists believe that coffee may be beneficial in keeping diabetes at bay in several ways: (1) by helping the body use insulin and protecting insulin-producing cells, enabling effective regulation of blood sugar; (2) preventing tissue damage; and (3) and battling inflammation, a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. One component of coffee known as caffeic acid has been found to be particularly significant in reducing the toxic accumulation of abnormal protein deposits (amyloid fibrils) found in people with type 2 diabetes. Decaffeinated coffee is thought to be as beneficial, or more so, than regular.


After one too many long nights at the office, it’s not uncommon to experience mental fatigue. In addition to getting your mental health back on track to make sure it doesn’t lead to more serious health problems, drink some coffee: A 2010 review in the journal Nutrition found caffeine can help decrease the exhaustion you’re feeling by perking your body up.

I also tried his Bulletproof Coffee which is much smoother than regular coffee and which he claims is produced carefully to avoid the presence of mycotoxins: “Most coffee beans are processed by either leaving them in the sun and elements to wither and dry, or by pressing them and letting them ferment (spoil) to remove the outer layer of the bean. Both of these techniques are known to produce significant levels of mycotoxins as they enhance flavor. Upgraded coffee beans are mechanically processed right after picking using only clean cold water. This more expensive process is safer because it dramatically reduces harmful molds or bacteria from impacting your health.”


Here’s a way to add a little seasonal flair to your caffeine routine while also supporting heart health and balancing blood sugar levels. (PSL, can you do that?) Adding a pinch of cinnamon can boost antioxidants, lower your blood sugar, and even cut your risk of heart disease. Plus, it tastes so good that you might finally kick the cream and sugar habit because, really, it doesn't need anything else.
In 2013, the journal Epidemiology and Prevention published a review of studies analyzing the correlation between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease. Data from 36 different studies showed that people who drink three to five cups of coffee per day had a lower risk of heart disease than those who drink no coffee or more than five cups per day.
Looking for a replacement for your diet soda? Try sparkling coffee. The latest interpretation of coffee involves blending cold brew with natural ingredients like Meyer lemon juice and organic cane sugar. The health benefits of flavors like Ginger Hibiscus? They’re marketed as healthier energy drinks, with formulations that contain electrolytes, antioxidants, and less caffeine than straight-up coffee. Companies like Matchless, Upruit, Keepers, and Stumptown make canned versions.
We’ve been conditioned to believe that caffeine is dehydrating, one of the primary reasons why fitness experts recommend nixing coffee pre- and post-workout. However, recent research suggests that moderate caffeine consumption — up to about 500 mg, or about five cups per day — doesn’t dehydrate exercisers enough to interfere with their workout. In addition, coffee helps battle fatigue, enabling you to exercise longer.
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